What is corruption?
Corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal offense undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, to acquire illicit benefit or abuse power for one’s private gain. Anti-corruption agencies should learn how corruption affects the wellbeing of society in areas such as judiciary, security agencies, health and education. Corruption is most common in judiciary, health, security agencies and houses of parliament.
Corruption can be found anywhere at any time. Even dating back to the Mesopotamia Era, there has been corruption found within society. Nowadays, however, corruption has been mostly discovered in the government. Even though numerous countries’ governments are filled to the brim with corruption.
Corruption does not only occur in government buildings. You can see corruption in your daily life. It impacts the implementation of the rule of law and democratic values. It takes funding away from important infrastructure investments such as roads, schools and hospitals, and deters international investors.
The forms of corruption include not only public officials’ personal gain behavior but also interest exchange process, such as nepotism, nonfeasance and disposal of public resources. Corruption can be defined as breaking the rules pertaining to a certain office, it can be defined economically, and it can be defined as acting against general interest
Corruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon that affects all countries in the world. In classical and most widely used definition, corruption is a behavior which deviates from the formal duties of a public role because of private regarding (personal, close family, private clique) pecuniary or status gains. In short corruption, is the misuse of public power for private gain. Currently the most common types of corruption are bribery, nepotism, fraud and embezzlement. It is necessary to make a distinction between administrative and political corruption. Administrative corruption alters the implementation of policies such as getting a license, even if one does not qualify for it. While political corruption influences
Firstly, corruption reduces the overall wealth in the country which may lead to the deterrence for the potential investors. Secondly, corruption reduces the amount of money for educational systems, hospitals, county’s infrastructure, police and other institutions which provide services for the citizens. In other words, it hurts the most vulnerable people. Finally, corruption undermines trust in government, which has a negative impact on society.
I-Watch investigators went on a mission to find out how corruption affects the wellbeing of society by investigating government critical areas such as judiciary, security agencies, health, parliament and education where donor funding is siphoned into a few people’s pockets. And the following critical areas were found to be riddled with corruption.
Corruption in parliament.
I-Watch investigators reveals how corruption affects the wellbeing of society in that, money possibly influences members of parliament, and thus possibly affects the outcome of certain principles. In addition to corruption affecting the poorest sections of society, the effect of corruption on politics is that it renders the state incapacitated and powerless. Corruption is damaging to the state’s ability to extract taxes, to implement coherent and rational development policies, to redistribute among groups and consequently to its ability to transform the society and the economy according to political priorities. The capacity of the state to extract taxes would be erode when individuals and groups are able to pay their way out, and certainly when public officials are embezzling revenues. When bureaucratic regulations are reorganized, manipulated and operate in a confusing manner, the methods are there to enable bureaucrats to easily collect bribes and have their way in virtually in every decision.
Corrupt leadership.
Some believe people become corrupt on their own; others believe people who are influenced by power, become corrupt overtime. Corruption mixed with power is a dangerous combination. Corruption leads people to lose sight of what’s right and wrong and what’s good and bad. Power corrupts those who have it and one can see this through police brutality, political leaders such as dictators, and abusive parents. State security agencies especially police brutality has become a real problem in many parts of the world.
How government corruption affect economy.
Corrupted economies are not able to function properly because corruption prevents the natural laws of the economy from functioning freely. As a result, corruption in a nation’s political and economic operations causes its entire society to suffer.
How corruption affect good governance.
Corruption, in turn, can prevent good governance principles and structures from being put in place, or enforced. Violations of the principles of transparency, accountability and rule of law appear to be most closely associated with corruption.
Corrupt judicially.
What is Judicial Corruption? Corruption is the abuse of power for the purpose of getting personal advantage which easily adjusts to circumstance of incorrect conduct by justice workers or of staff involved in decisions giving support to the justice system. Justice system define judicial corruption any act through which workers in the justice system are negatively impacted that affects the independence of judicial actions for the resolve of obtaining an unlawful benefit for themselves or other person. Judicial corruption refers to corruption related improper of judges, through receiving or giving bribes, not proper sentencing of convicted criminals, bias in the hearing and judgement of arguments and other such misconduct, any act through which workers in the justice system are negatively influenced that affects the impartiality of judicial proceedings for the purpose of obtaining an unlawful benefit for themselves or other persons. There are two types of such negative influences upon justice: The first incorrect influences affecting the independence of justice as a system or the independence of judges as individuals stress factors acting on justice.
Corruption within country’s government is mainly due to corrupt judicial and police officers betraying the system.
Democracy remedies corruption.
To demonstrate how democracy reduces corruption, firstly the tool using to indicate the amount of corruption is needed. Corruption as the act of the abuse of power for self-interests or to obtain a personal benefit is hard to be precisely counted. The estimation of corruption cannot be done by simply counting the time of corrupt activities. Secondly, there is accountability and good governance where democracy thrives.
How corruption is detected.
Bribery and corruption can be detected via:

  1. Forensic audits.
  2. Anti-corruption programs, which are policies and procedures that (among other things) help assess and deal with bribery and corruption.
  3. Looking out for red flags, such as one contractor constantly winning a bid.
    How to deal with corruption.
    Ways to Reduce the Risk of Bribery & Corruption:
  4. Update your anti-bribery and anti-corruption policies.
  5. Get the tone ‘from the top’ right.
  6. Embed ABAC principles in corporate culture.
  7. Ensure gifts and hospitality meet 3 important criteria:
  8. Conduct due diligence on all third parties.
  9. Watch out for red flags.
  10. Take extra precautions dealing with foreign public officials.
    Corruption risk.
    Corruption risk is equated with the set of institutional vulnerabilities within a system. or process which might favor or facilitate corrupt practices. Measures of institutional vulnerability are combined with data on perceptions. And experience of corruption as a proxy for corruption risk.
    Bribery and corruption are two aspects that usually go hand in hand and can be found almost anywhere. The culprits of these ‘splendid’ acts tend to believe that partaking in them is the best way to get by in this cruel world, but what they don’t realize is how their actions could in turn result as the downfall of any society. Corruption is seen as dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery, therefore bribery is seen as one of the most common forms of corruption. Bribery is an act of giving money or gift giving that alters the behavior of the recipient.

A country’s development depends on how much of states resources are lost to this ugly practice. In developed countries, where corruption is limited to a small number of projects and where common people do not encounter it on a daily basis, the impact does not jeopardize the welfare of its people as much, but in a poor country it has a significant impact. There are many forms of corruption, one being embezzlement, where ,for example, funds from the government that are set aside for development purposes (building a school in a rural area) are misdirected and used for a personal preference instead. This will therefore decrease the development of the country and its people and because a country needs to continuously better itself and uplift its people, this will just increase the chances of a catastrophic downfall. Another form of corruption is favoritism, in many businesses today people are hired for the wrong reasons, and in many cases these people are not qualified for the position. This firstly affects the running of a business and its outcome,
Conclusion.
Corruption is the abuse of public power for one’s own benefit. A much more elaborate explanation of the term corruption is that “Corruption is an improbity or decay in the decision-making process in which a decision-maker consents to deviate or demands deviation from the criterion which should rule his or her decision-making, in exchange for a reward or for the promise or expectation of a reward, while these motives influencing his or her decision-making cannot be part of the justification of the decision. The impact of corruption is very hard to society and many effects which are caused by corruption such as a decrease in freedom.
This is because companies are hesitant about investing in countries where corruption is abundant since the costs of undertaking a successful business are eloquently higher. Even though some affected countries abundant in natural resources, the population still does not benefit from the money earned.
To summarize what has been said corruption thwarts citizens, countries and organizations from adhering to their full potential. A short time ago, some years back, criminal gangs in Latin America and African countries were administering a successful business in illegal gemstone mining. The conditions of this area were terrible, as it was a huge encampment scarred by deforestation and mercury filled pools, was dirty, desperate and dangerous: food and water were scarce; malaria and yellow fever were rampant; and trafficked girls as young as twelve years worked as prostitutes in the surrounding bars. This business was so successful due to the ever-increasing demand for gold. The illegally collected gold from this illegal area is then laundered and exported by the help of corrupt officials. It is then sent to refineries where it is then mixed with legally produced gold and transported to anywhere in the world.
Corruption in the health sector can be life threatening and poor people are the ones which are mostly affected by this since the medical staff may demand bribes to attend to patients, for skipping the queue and also they may use medicines of a sub-standard quality. World Bank surveys show that in some countries a maximum of 80% of the non-salary health funds never reaches local facilities. The information taken by I-Watch from the World Bank website provides a brief summary of the evidence available for the health sector in many developing countries where corruption is endemic. Where there is high leakage clearly shows inadequate funding making good service seem impossible. This means that the people are unfairly treated since the patients have to pay the expenses of what was supposed to be free health and that’s how corruption affects the wellbeing of society.

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